What is Polkadot (DOT) | Whitepaper Summary

What is Polkadot (DOT)


Polkadot is an open-source blockchain community that was launched in 2020. It is a world community of blockchains the place customers can function or handle their blockchains. Polkadot additionally supplies connectivity between blockchains with none third get together and permits the switch of knowledge in a really safe method.

Users can create parallel chains known as “parachains”, which permit for environment friendly administration of the blockchain community. This design resolution by the builders of Polkadot, mixed with its consensus mechanisms makes it extraordinarily power environment friendly.

Polkadot Whitepaper Explained!


Ethereum was Co-founded by Vitalik Buterin and Gavin Wood. Ethereum was modern with the introduction of sensible contracts, that are applications that may be executed on the blockchain. However, there have been constraints with Ethereum.

It didn’t scale properly, leading to extraordinarily excessive gasoline charges. It additionally confronted points with upgradeability. To remedy this, Layer-1 chains had been made, that are constructed over the Ethereum mainnet and have become fashionable on account of lesser gasoline prices.

This got here with the extra restrictions of constructing further mechanisms for inter-chain communication. Hence Gavin Wood based Parity Technologies to realize expertise in constructing purchasers for Ethereum, Bitcoin and Zcash earlier than engaged on a protocol that will remedy the weaknesses inside present blockchains.

This marked the start of Polkadot.


Polkadot Whitepaper: This blockchain protocol goals to be an ecosystem of chains. There are 4 elements:

  1. Relay chain:
    The relay chain is the inspiration of the Polkadot ecosystem. Network consensus, safety and interoperability between chains and threads are achieved via this Relay chain.
  2. Parachains:
    Parachains are user-generated chains which are focused towards particular purposes. They are constructed on high of the Substrate framework and the options and parameters inside them are extremely configurable.
  3. Parathreads:
    Parathreads are just like Parachains, however are a lot lighter and don’t have to be in sync with one another at all times. This is economically advantageous for lighter functions.
  4. Bridges:
    Bridges are mechanisms utilizing which inter-chain communications could be carried out. They additionally enable connectivity to chains like Ethereum and Bitcoin. Bridges enable for options reminiscent of token exchanges between blockchains.


Relay chains and Parachains in Polkadot’s structure

Coming to consensus, Polkadot took inspiration from the Ouroboros consensus methodology and got here up with the Nominated Proof of Stake consensus.

Simple description of voting course of

There are 2 varieties of people that handle the blockchain. One is the Nominator and the opposite is the Validator The Nominator is chargeable for backing the Validators by staking part of their Tokens (on this case, the DOT token in Polkadot).

In Polkadot, a nominator can again as much as 16 validators at a time. The extra backing a validator has, the extra possibilities the validator has at changing into a member of the Active Set. The members of the Active Set are chargeable for sustaining the blockchain (proposing blocks, validating them and including blocks to the blockchain).

The course of of choosing the validators in Polkadot is known as the weighted sequential ‘phragmen method’. This is an algorithm that chooses the Validators in accordance with the quantity of stake backing them. Each Active Set lasts for a interval known as the Era. Currently, the Era is set for 24 hours. This signifies that an Active set can validate transactions and append blocks for 24 hours, after which new Validators are elected into the Active Set.

Additional Read: Polkadot vs Chainlink


The DOT token has much more purposes in Polkadot, in comparison with its contemporaries like Ethereum and Solana:

  1. Governance:
    Owners of the DOT token can vote on numerous parameter proposals of the blockchain (together with however not restricted to gasoline charges).
  2. Parachain Bonding:
    To add a parachain to Polkadot, one should lock a set quantity of DOT tokens. The tokens will keep locked till the aim of the parachain is over and the parachain is able to be eliminated.
  3. Network Operation:
    DOT tokens are required by members of the blockchain (Nominators) to elect Validators, as talked about within the structure.

Incentive Methods

Token holders can take part as Nominators to stake assist for Validators. Validators who’re chosen into the Active set obtain equal incentives. The incentives acquired by a validator within the Active Set are distributed among the many stakeholders in proportion to the variety of tokens staked.

Punishment Methods

If any Validator is discovered to be performing unlawful actions, their stake is slashed, and the quantity of slash is proportional to the variety of tokens staked for the actual Validator. This disincentivizes Validators from unlawful actions and in addition disincentivizes Nominators from staking for doubtlessly dangerous Validators.


Polkadot has a wide selection of benefits. Some of them are:

  1. Better decentralisation:
    The Nominated Proof of stake algorithm, mixed with the weighted sequential ‘Phragmen method’ for electing the Active set members signifies that higher decentralisation could be achieved. Also, individuals with extra stake can not exert as a lot affect on the blockchain as is attainable with different Proof of stake consensus algorithms.
  2. Flexibility:
    Parachains deployed on Polkadot could be constructed simply utilizing the Substrate framework. Substrate permits numerous options for the end-user software and permits full flexibility for the traits that the parachain would wish. Substrate permits lightning-fast syncing between nodes and makes community upgrades painless. Configurable transaction charges are a killer characteristic of substrate-based parachains.
  3. Minimal Carbon Footprint:
    The Nominated Proof of Stake (NPoS) is thought-about to be one of the vital environment friendly relating to carbon footprints.


Polkadot Whitepaper: It processes all transactions from all chains in parallel; the idea could be known as “parachains” so the transaction pace is quick in comparison with others. One of the principle advantages of Polkadot is to determine safety and quick and scalable transactions.

These are some main initiatives of Polkadots, which makes it extraordinarily aggressive:

  • Acala
    The challenge motive is to create DeFi hub that permits cross-blockchain liquidity and software
  • Moonbeam
    The sensible contract that connects Ethereum initiatives to Polkadot; it permits the necessity for utilizing new growth instruments to work together throughout chains.
  • Phala
    Phala focuses on privacy-preserving cloud computing providers.
  • Bitfrost
    It will enable customers to entry a wide range of DeFi options whereas providing quite a lot of totally different staking rewards and liquidity choices.


Some well-known opponents of Polkadot and their options:

  • SKALE Labs
    ● Near zero gasoline charges
    ● Random Node Selection/Frequent Node Rotation
    ● Storing recordsdata on the blockchain is attainable throughout the SKALE Network.
  • Avalanche
    ● Avalanche is the quickest and 1st decentralised sensible contract platform.
    ● There is three element of blockchains: The P-chain, G-chain and the X-chain
    ● It is eco-friendly, quick, and low value.
  • Wanchain
    ● In its protocol, third events are used for cross-chain transactions.
    ● It is based mostly on three major cross-chain options, particularly – Registration module, Data transmission module and Query module
  • Cosmos Network
    ● Cosmos is a blockchain agnostic gateway between different chains within the ecosystem.
    ● Its deal with two key points – interoperability and customisation
    ● Applications: they at all times course of and replace their transactions shortly
    ● Networking: higher communication between hub and zones
    ● The Proof-of-Stake module, which executes the authentication of transactions


DOT/USDT | Source: Tradingview

Additional Read: Polkadot Price Prediction


Polkadot goals to be the next-generation blockchain know-how with the imaginative and prescient of a safe and resilient net that protects consumer pursuits utilizing the rules of Web3.0. When new know-how comes into the market, it takes time for it to be user-friendly and trustable for the viewers.

Nowadays, the vast majority of individuals’s site visitors is collected and/or managed by a number of firms by their web sites, and there is a excessive likelihood of knowledge manipulation, fraud, and surveillance. Still, we belief the system blindly. More than 100 initiatives are presently being constructed for the Polkadot ecosystem.

It has initiatives like DeFi(decentralized finance), privacy-oriented knowledge, and digital identification methods. Some of Polkadot’s providers allow privateness of private knowledge by storing such knowledge on their machine solely so there can be fewer possibilities for knowledge manipulation. Some updates and options of Polkadot in imaginative and prescient to make it a greater answer

  1. Past Updates
    ● POA – Proof of authority
    ● NPoS – Nominated Proof of stake
    ● Enabling Governance and Removing Sudo Phase
    ● Enable Balance Transfer
  2. Post-launch upgrades
    ● XCM (cross-consensus communication commonplace)
    ● XCMP (cross-chain message passing protocol)
    ● Parathreads


Polkadot builds upon the ideas of Ethereum and Solana by being an ecosystem of chains as a substitute of being one chain. An analogy to understanding Polkadot is that folks can simply construct porta-cabins in a metropolis.

According to the aim, persons are free to construct and dismantle the porta-cabins, and are additionally free to revamp present porta-cabins in methods they see match. Whereas Ethereum and Solana could be thought-about as skyscrapers the place persons are supposed to purchase area for their very own functions.

We all know that such persons are depending on the present construction of the skyscraper (partitions, pillars, water provide, drainage, home windows and so forth) and should design their areas such that their “application” can match throughout the skyscraper. This can result in un-optimised areas (lack of entry to pure sources of sunshine, un-optimised areas on account of intrusive partitions, and so forth) and fixing such issues might require further expenditure.


Use this three-step course of to purchase your first DOT token utilizing the CoinDCX, crypto app.

  • Sign Up for the CoinDCX account: Enter a legitimate electronic mail tackle and a consumer identify on the sign-up web page. Once the Email Id has been verified, set a powerful password to safe your account.
  • Verify the account: You want to finish your KYC, to purchase a DOT token on the CoinDCX platform. All it’s essential do is add the paperwork and your account can be arrange in 15 minutes.
  •  Buy DOT INR: After the account has been verified, you’ll be able to deposit any quantity of fiat foreign money you’re comfy with and begin your crypto journey!

Disclaimer: User Generated Content – Original Content created by a member of BITS Pilani, beneath the session of Dr. Amit Dua, Assistant Professor, Computer Science Department, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus in affiliation with CoinDCX. The views and opinions expressed inside this submit belong solely to the creator.
Author: Madhav Madhusoodanan, Tikesh Vaishnav


Source link

What do you think?


Written by admin

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

GIPHY App Key not set. Please check settings

What is Tron (TRX)

What is Tron (TRX) | Whitepaper Summary

top crypto projects

Top 6 Crypto Projects by TVL(Total Value Locked) in August 2022